This volume is an assemblage of the collective experience from the pick of major research groups investigating these aspects of muscle cell biology. It provides up-to-date coverage and presents a broad range of topics.
Since the middle of the last century we have progressively built up a comprehensive descriptive model of the allied mechanisms that maintain our muscles at a size and strength appropriate to the functional demands upon them and that rapidly repair damaged muscles. This volume is an assemblage of the collective experience from the pick of major research groups investigating these aspects of muscle cell biology. It provides up-to-date coverage and presents a broad range of topics.
Trends in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Applications for Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration
Release on 2015 | by A.R. Caseiro
Since the first suggestions of the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, many applications have been explored for a variety of tissues and diseases, including the skeletal muscle, which is the ...
Skeletal muscle injuries are quite frequent in traumatic scenarios, such as war injuries or road- or work-related accidents. The skeletal muscle has good regenerative ability, but the extent or recurrence of muscle injury might impair complete structural and functional recovery. Severe tissue loss overwhelms skeletal muscle ́s intrinsic regenerative capabilities and culminates in the development of noncontractile fibrous tissue scar. Conservative RICE -based and surgical treatments show limited efficacy in terms of improving these severe cases outcomes, pressing the need for new approaches on skeletal muscle's therapy. Since the first suggestions of the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, many applications have been explored for a variety of tissues and diseases, including the skeletal muscle, which is the focus of this literature review.
Postnatal skeletal muscle repair is dependent on the tight regulation of an adult stem cell population known as satellite cells. In response to injury, these quiescent cells are activated, proliferate and express skeletal muscle-specific genes. The majority of satellite cells will fuse to damaged fibers or form new muscle fibers, while a subset will return to a quiescent state, where they are available for future rounds of repair. Robust muscle repair is dependent on the signals that regulate the mutually exclusive decisions of differentiation and self-renewal. A likely candidate for regulating this process is NUMB, an inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway that has been shown to asymmetrically localize in daughter cells undergoing cell fate decisions. In order to study the role of this protein in muscle repair, an inducible knockout of Numb was made in mice. Numb deficient muscle had a defective repair response to acute induced damage as characterized by smaller myofibers, increased collagen deposition and infiltration of fibrotic cells. Satellite cells isolated from Numb-deficient mice show decreased proliferation rates. Subsequent analyses of gene expression demonstrated that these cells had an aberrantly up-regulated Myostatin (Mstn), an inhibitor of myoblast proliferation. Further, this defect could be rescued with Mstn specific siRNAs. These data indicate that NUMB is necessary for postnatal muscle repair and early proliferative expansion of satellite cells. We used an evolutionary compatible to examine processes controlling satellite cell fate decisions, primary satellite cell lines were generated from Anolis carolinensis. This green anole lizard is evolutionarily the closet animal to mammals that forms de novo muscle tissue while undergoing tail regeneration. The mechanism of regeneration in anoles and the sources of stem cells for skeletal muscle, cartilage and nerves are poorly understood. Thus, satellite cells were isolated from A. carolinensis and analyzed for their plasticity. Anole satellite cells show increased plasticity as compared to mouse as determined by expression of key markers specific for bone and cartilage without administration of exogenous morphogens. These novel data suggest that satellite cells might contribute to more than muscle in tail regeneration of A. carolinensis.
Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Mouse
Release on 2018-06-07 | by Michael Kyba
This volume focuses on the cell biology and physiology of skeletal muscle regeneration.
This volume focuses on the cell biology and physiology of skeletal muscle regeneration. This Book is a collection of classic and cutting edge protocols optimized for mice, but in most cases adaptable to rat or other mammalian models, that will allow an investigator to develop and implement a research study on skeletal muscle regeneration. Chapters address the three major areas of study: provoking regeneration by inducing damage to muscle, analyzing the progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, and quantifying overall muscle function. Subjects discussed include: inducing skeletal muscle injury by eccentric contraction; volumetric muscle loss; single myofiber isolation and culture; satellite cell transplantation; muscle clearing for whole mount immunostaining; luciferase tracking of muscle stem cells; mitochondrial and mitophagy flux analysis; in vivo assessment of muscle contractility; force measurements on single isolated myofibers; and analysis of aerobic respiration in intact skeletal muscle tissue by microplate respirometry. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to each respective topic, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting edge and practical, Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Mouse: Methods and Protocols is an essential laboratory reference for research in skeletal muscle growth, damage, repair, degeneration, and regenerative therapy in the mouse model system.
Role of Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Development Regeneration Repair Aging and Disease
Release on 2016-06-29 | by Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life.
Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.
Muscle Tissue Engineering Regeneration and Repair
Release on 2016-11-09 | by G. J. Christ
This is an exciting time for the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering. The development of regenerative medicine technologies for skeletal muscle repair and reconstruction continues at an impressive rate.
This is an exciting time for the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering. The development of regenerative medicine technologies for skeletal muscle repair and reconstruction continues at an impressive rate. This new publication reviews the recent growth and increasing sophistication of translational research with a focus on creating solutions for otherwise irrecoverable muscle injuries. First, there is a comprehensive snapshot of where this rapidly growing and increasingly visible field of research now stands. Then, current technological limitations, knowledge gaps, and roadblocks to future progress are identified. The establishment of long-lasting, interdisciplinary, global, and collaborative, partnerships is necessary for turning the enormous possibilities for muscle tissue repair and regeneration into treatment solutions. 'Muscle Tissue Engineering, Regeneration and Repair' provides the needed background and perspective for undergraduates, graduate students, scientists, engineers, and clinicians interested in learning about and/or getting involved in this important effort.
Chitosan Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Fibrosis Inhibition
Release on 2015 | by Shama Rajan Iyer
Treatment of ventral hernias frequently employs use of synthetic and biological meshes, which often results in scar tissue formation and incomplete muscle regeneration, leading to high recurrence rates.
Treatment of ventral hernias frequently employs use of synthetic and biological meshes, which often results in scar tissue formation and incomplete muscle regeneration, leading to high recurrence rates. A new generation of mesh or scaffold that promotes muscle tissue ingrowth and reduces fibrosis is needed. Chitosan, a co-polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine and N-glucosamine units, has been previously shown to elicit a regenerative response instead of a fibrotic response. In this dissertation, the effects of chitosan on skeletal muscle regeneration, fibrosis formation, and inflammatory response was characterized. The underlying mechanisms were also examined. We found that chitosan coating preferentially promoted murine myoblast adhesion with higher expression of integrin [beta]3 and inhibited murine fibroblast adhesion with reorganization of actin and integrin [beta]1 network. We demonstrated that chitosan may be a promising biomaterial for ventral hernia repair as it reduced mechanisms of fibrosis with increased expression of MMP1 (matrix metalloproteinase 1, a collagenase that also functions as a myokine), reduced expression of vimentin (an intermediate filament that provides mechanical support to cells), and reduced fibroblast adhesion and viability in human fibroblasts, while not affecting human myoblast adhesion and viability in an in-vitro model of acute inflammation. Reduced inflammatory response was observed with chitosan coating on polypropylene meshes at 2 weeks after implantation in a partial thickness defect in rat abdominal wall compared to uncoated polypropylene meshes, with reduced expression of cytokine, TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis) and its receptor, Fn-14. Chitosan impaired fibroblast adhesion, which was possibly due to reduced expression of integrins, promotion of cell-cell adhesion and reorganization of extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins in human fibroblasts. Human myoblast adhesion was not negatively impacted by chitosan coating. However, myotube formation was impaired with chitosan coating, due to the possible changes in surface bound calcium ions, integrin expression and loss of serum proteins in differentiation media. By characterizing the attachment of myoblasts and fibroblasts to chitosan, and the inflammatory response, I hope to provide insights into developing a new generation of biomaterials for functional wound healing.
Repair and Regeneration in Mammalion Skeletal Muscle
Frontiers in Skeletal Muscle Wasting Regeneration and Stem Cells
Release on 2016-05-25 | by Carlos Hermano J. Pinheiro
Our purpose herein is to facilitate better dissemination of research into skeletal muscle physiology field. Frontiers in Physiology is a journal indexed in: PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, CrossRef.
The search for knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass homeostasis and regeneration is an exciting scientific area and extremely important to develop therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular disorders and conditions related to muscle wasting. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration consist of molecular signaling pathways modulating protein synthesis and degradation, bioenergetics alterations and preserved function of muscle stem cells. In the last years, different kinds of stem cells has been reported to be localized into skeletal muscle (satellite cells, mesoangioblasts, progenitor interstitial cells and others) or migrate from non-muscle sites, such as bone marrow, to muscle tissue in response to injury. In addition, myogenic progenitor cells are also activated in skeletal muscle wasting disorders. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge regarding skeletal muscle and stem cell biology in the context of both physiological and pathological conditions. Our purpose herein is to facilitate better dissemination of research into skeletal muscle physiology field. Frontiers in Physiology is a journal indexed in: PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, CrossRef.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-08 - Publisher: Hardpress Publishing
Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they