Race and the Enlightenment

This book gathers into one volume the most provocative philosophical writing on race produced by the luminaries of the European Enlightenment.

Race and the Enlightenment

Race and the Enlightenment

Emmanuel Eze collects into one convenient and controversial volume the most important and influential writings on race that the European Enlightenment produced.

The Enlightenment and Race and Gender

Its ideals of liberté, egalité and fraternité were carried through out Europe and even into the Americas. Yet, whether these goals were achieved, especially in connection with gender and race, shall be further discussed in this essay.

The Enlightenment and Race and Gender

The Enlightenment and Race and Gender

Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: USA, grade: 1,0, , language: English, abstract: For centuries, the term ‘Enlightenment’ has been used by historiographers and historians to refer to a period in history which was marked by great change in the way people thought about the essence of life. It was coined by people who believed that they had finally found answers to life’s problems – not in religion but in science. Many revolutions were born out of this age of reason, including the French Revolution which today is generally used to mark the end of the Enlightenment era. Its ideals of liberté, egalité and fraternité were carried through out Europe and even into the Americas. Yet, whether these goals were achieved, especially in connection with gender and race, shall be further discussed in this essay. At the outset of this paper will be a brief introduction to the Enlightenment and its most important philosophes. In the following two chapters, this paper will take a closer look at the relationship between the Enlightenment and ideas of race and gender. How did Enlightenment thinkers address and handle these topics? What was the legacy of Enlightenment concerning women and in particular black emancipation? How does anti-Semitism relate to the subject, and how could racism avail in societies that claimed to stand for equality of rights? Acknowledging that the United States of America is a nation which was founded and thoroughly shaped by Enlightenment thinkers, this paper will focus just as much on the developments in the nation states of Europe as it will on the United States of America.

Race and the Enlightenment

Race and the Enlightenment

Race and the Enlightenment


The Enlightenment

Such examples show the tentative and unstable character of Enlightenment attempts to classify the members of the human race. They also show how difficult it was to find out where the boundaries of humanity were.

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment

An engaging and accessible overview of the Enlightenment as a global phenomenon, with updated material and additional online resources.

The Color of Equality

The Color of Equality is the first book to investigate both the inclusive language of common humanity and the hierarchical language of race in Enlightenment thought, seeking to understand how eighteenth-century thinkers themselves made ...

The Color of Equality

The Color of Equality

The Enlightenment is often either praised as the wellspring of modern egalitarianism or condemned as the cradle of scientific racism. How should we make sense of this paradox? The Color of Equality is the first book to investigate both the inclusive language of common humanity and the hierarchical language of race in Enlightenment thought, seeking to understand how eighteenth-century thinkers themselves made sense of these tensions. Using three major Enlightenment encyclopedias from England, France, and Switzerland, the book provides a rich contextualization of the conflicting ideas of equality and race in eighteenth-century thought. Enlightenment thinkers used physical features to categorize humanity into novel "racial" groups in a discourse that was imbued with Eurocentric aesthetic and moral judgments. Simultaneously, however, these very same thinkers politicized equality by putting it to new uses, such as a vitriolic denunciation of slavery and inhumane treatment that was grounded in the nascent philosophy of human rights. Vartija contends that the tension between Enlightenment ideas of race and equality can best be explained by these thinkers' attempt to provide a naturalistic account of humanity, including both our physical and moral attributes. Enlightenment racial classification fits into the novel inclusion of humanity in histories of nature, while the search for the origins of morality in social experience alone lent equality a normative authority it had not previously possessed. Eschewing straightforward approbation or blame of the Enlightenment, The Color of Equality demonstrates that our present-day thinking about human physical and cultural diversity continues to be deeply informed by an eighteenth-century European intellectual revolution with global ramifications.

The relationship between race and culture in Enlightenment thought

Seminar paper from the year 2015 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Middle Ages, Early Modern Age, grade: 1,3, University of Göttingen (Seminar für Mittlere und Neuere Geschichte), language: English, abstract: This paper ...

The relationship between race and culture in Enlightenment thought

The relationship between race and culture in Enlightenment thought

Seminar paper from the year 2015 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Middle Ages, Early Modern Age, grade: 1,3, University of Göttingen (Seminar für Mittlere und Neuere Geschichte), language: English, abstract: This paper will revolve around the question of how the concepts of race and culture – encompassing the entirety of human behaviour, social practices, expressive forms and technologies – or civilisation – signifying the former’s upscaled and yet more complex version – might be interlinked in the anthropological and philosophical writings of four renowned German scholars: Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Meiners and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. To this end, the intellectual preconditions for culture and civilisation need to be taken into account as well. All four of these scholars were deliberately chosen not only due to their pioneering contributions to scientific race and cultural theories, but also the controversial, at times perhaps even acrimonious debates they were engaged in with each other. Scholarly activity of the Enlightenment could be said to have carried the impulse to classify and organise the world around us and even beyond our immediate reach to extremes. However, tied to classification systems of any kind are incongruities and generalisations that do not necessarily, if at all, measure up to reality. Perhaps it is in these generalising descriptions, especially of foreign peoples and cultures, where one’s own self-conception surfaces most clearly. In order to gain insight into but a small fraction of the Enlightened mind, the analysis of some of the most influential and remarkable writings about the racial division of humankind could be a useful starting point.

CrossRoutes the Meanings of race for the 21st Century

Christian soul ) made the species homogeneous , and , as Thomas F. Gossett writes , " was then enough to keep the philosophers of the Enlightenment uncomfortable in the presence of theories , " as in the case of " race " in its late ...

CrossRoutes  the Meanings of  race  for the 21st Century

CrossRoutes the Meanings of race for the 21st Century

This collection reflects the still urgent project of historical recuperation, as well as an examination of literary representations and other cultural manifestations of the Black Diaspora. Disciplinary work within the boundaries of African American Studies has been enhanced by more general considerations of the history of "race" and racism in globalized contexts. The articles assembled here reflect recent empirical research as well as challenging theoretical considerations. Contributions address particular formations of racialized modernity owed to the impact of the Atlantic slave trade and slavery, and thus broaden the approach to the Middle Passage, to improve our understanding of it as a constitutive transatlantic phenomenon in the widest possible sense.

Race and Transatlantic Identities

James L. Nordlund (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998), 7–8; Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, 'A Natural History, General and Particular', in Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, ed. Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze (Malden, ...

Race and Transatlantic Identities

Race and Transatlantic Identities

Race and Transatlantic Identities provides a rich overview of the complex relationship between the construction of race and transatlantic identity as expressed in a variety of cultural forms, refracted through different disciplinary and critical perspectives, and manifested at different historical moments. Spanning a period from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, the contributions provide a panorama of the wealth and variety of contemporary approaches to grappling with notions of race in a transatlantic context, raising questions about the permanence and fixity of racial boundaries. The volume, which focuses on the cultural sites where individuals construct and express their racial identities in the context of those boundaries, also explores strategies through which those boundaries are defined and redefined. The collection conducts this inquiry by juxtaposing essays on literature, history, visual arts, material culture, music, and dance in ways that encourage the reader to engage with concepts across traditional disciplinary boundaries. The articles in this book were originally published in the Journal of Transatlantic Studies.

White on White black on Black

Race and the Enlightenment ( Oxford , UK and Cambridge , MA : Blackwell Publishers , 1997 ) , 127. John Locke distinguished between being a man and being a person in respect of blacks . See Book Two , chap .

White on White black on Black

White on White black on Black

White on White/Black on Black is a unique contribution to the philosophy of race. The book explores how fourteen philosophers, seven white and seven black, philosophically understand the dynamics of the process of racialization. Combined, the contributions demonstrate different and similar conceptual trajectories of raced identities that emerge from within and across the racial divide. Each of the fourteen philosophers, who share a textual space of exploration, name blackness/whiteness, revealing significant political, cultural, and existential aspects of what it means to be black/white. Through the power of naming and theorizing whiteness and blackness, White on White/Black on Black dares to bring clarity and complexity to our understanding of race identity.

Fatal Invention

How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century Dorothy Roberts. 52 Sam Roberts and Peter Baker, “Asked to Declare ... 4 See Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, ed., Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader (Cambridge ...

Fatal Invention

Fatal Invention

An incisive, groundbreaking book that examines how a biological concept of race is a myth that promotes inequality in a supposedly “post-racial” era. Though the Human Genome Project proved that human beings are not naturally divided by race, the emerging fields of personalized medicine, reproductive technologies, genetic genealogy, and DNA databanks are attempting to resuscitate race as a biological category written in our genes. This groundbreaking book by legal scholar and social critic Dorothy Roberts examines how the myth of race as a biological concept—revived by purportedly cutting-edge science, race-specific drugs, genetic testing, and DNA databases—continues to undermine a just society and promote inequality in a supposedly “post-racial” era. Named one of the ten best black nonfiction books 2011 by AFRO.com, Fatal Invention offers a timely and “provocative analysis” (Nature) of race, science, and politics that “is consistently lucid . . . alarming but not alarmist, controversial but evidential, impassioned but rational” (Publishers Weekly, starred review). “Everyone concerned about social justice in America should read this powerful book.” —Anthony D. Romero, executive director, American Civil Liberties Union “A terribly important book on how the ‘fatal invention’ has terrifying effects in the post-genomic, ‘post-racial’ era.” —Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, professor of sociology, Duke University, and author of Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States “Fatal Invention is a triumph! Race has always been an ill-defined amalgam of medical and cultural bias, thinly overlaid with the trappings of contemporary scientific thought. And no one has peeled back the layers of assumption and deception as lucidly as Dorothy Roberts.” —Harriet A. Washington, author of and Deadly Monopolies: The Shocking Corporate Takeover of Life Itself

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