Driving Women

Rather , Stein's kinship with the car and her gendering of it reinforced women's comfort with automobility . Driving for the American Fund for the French Wounded during World War I , Stein may have ventured into a man's world , but she ...

Driving Women

Driving Women

Publisher description

What is Driving Women s Financial Inclusion Across Countries

2018 International Monetary Fund WP/18/38 IMF Working Paper African Department What is Driving Women's Financial Inclusion Across Countries?1 Prepared by Corinne Deléchat*, Monique Newiak*, Rui Xu*, Fan Yang+, and Göksu Aslan# ...

What is Driving Women   s Financial Inclusion Across Countries

What is Driving Women s Financial Inclusion Across Countries

Using a broad set of macroeconomic country characteristics to supplement a new and comprehensive micro-level dataset for 140 countries, we identify structural factors, policies, and individual characteristics that are associated with financial inclusion—in general, and for women in particular. We find that structural country characteristics, such as resource-richness and level of development, and policies, such as stronger institutions, and financial development are significantly related to financial inclusion. We find a robust negative relationship between being female and financial inclusion as in previous studies, and our analysis points to legal discrimination, lack of protection from harassment, including at the work place, and more diffuse gender norms as possible explanatory factors.

Driving Lessons

For instance , we would expect gender differences in driving aggressiveness to be consistent with cultural norms for family or workplace violence : men are commonly more aggressive than women . The likelihood of more men participating ...

Driving Lessons

Driving Lessons

With the exception of modern warfare, no other human activity has destroyed as many lives as driving a motor vehicle. Traffic crashes kill and injure thousands of Canadians every year at an incalculable financial and emotional cost to society—but rather than rush to stem this tide of human carnage, policy-makers seem to accept the ghastly toll as the price we pay for mobility. Driving Lessons takes a fresh look at the complexities of the road transportation system in depth, going far beyond the symptomatic, linear, reductionist approach. It challenges current traffic safety paradigms that simply blame the driver or target "villains and scapegoats" like impaired or high-risk drivers. It takes issue with road transportation system management that sometimes puts mobility ahead of the safety of road users. As one researcher notes, human beings will make mistakes, and accordingly, "the road transportation system must be designed so that people’s mistakes do not have disastrous consequences."

Drunk Driving in America

The role of the social stigma for women with alcohol problems and a societal double standard in regards to the female driver, however, has been well documented in the literature (Beckman, 1975;Blume, 1978;Curlee, 1967; Gomberg, 1974; ...

Drunk Driving in America

Drunk Driving in America

This unique volume discusses research, policy, and treatment approaches to one of America’s most serious problems--the drunk driver. The authors--many of the countries most dedicated professionals from academic, research, correctional, public health, and judicial system backgrounds--present an extraordinary array of creative and thought-provoking approaches to the drunk driver. Their thorough descriptions will help you better understand the drunk driver, and their exploration of new sentencing and treatment strategies provides a comprehensive look at the options to confronting and solving the problem of alcohol and traffic safety in the United States. Chapters challenge many long-held assumptions about those who drink and drive; address policy issues; examine the need for culturally specific education and training programs for police, court officials, and human service providers; and offer helpful suggestions for designing programs for women and adolescent offenders.

Driving Culture in Iran

The interviews reflect the fact that women's empowerment – meanings of 'security' and 'privilege' gained via the profession of taxi driving – and also meanings derived from the rule that the BTS women taxi drivers should only drive ...

Driving Culture in Iran

Driving Culture in Iran

Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accidents worldwide and according to a recent UNICEF report, the current rate of road accidents in Iran is 20 times more than the world average. Using extensive interviews with a variety of Iranians from a range of backgrounds, this book explores their dangerous driving habits and the explanations for their disregard for traffic laws. It argues that Iranians' driving behaviour is an indicator of how they have historically related to each other and to their society at large, and how they have maintained a form of social order through law, culture and religion. By considering how ordinary Iranians experience the traffic problem in their cities and how they describe traffic rules, laws, authorities and the rights of other citizens, Driving Culture in Iran provides an original and valuable insight into Iranian legal, social and political culture.

Alcohol Drugs and Impaired Driving

driving population (Fell 1987; Popkin 1991; Valverius 1989). Women were becoming an increasing proportion of drinking drivers. In the U.S., in 1982 women represented 12.9% of all drivers in fatal crashes who tested positive for any ...

Alcohol  Drugs  and Impaired Driving

Alcohol Drugs and Impaired Driving

Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving addresses many theoretical and practical issues related to the role played by alcohol and other psychoactive drugs on driving performance, road-traffic safety, and public health. Several key forensic issues are involved in the enforcement of laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, including analytical toxicology, pharmacology of drug action, as well as the relationships between dose taken, concentration levels in the body, and impairment of performance and behavior. Our knowledge of drunken driving is much more comprehensive than drugged driving, so a large part of this book is devoted to alcohol impairment, as well as impairment caused by use of drugs other than alcohol. For convenience, the book is divided into four main sections. The first section gives some historical background about measuring alcohol in blood and breath as evidence for the prosecution of traffic offenders. The important role of the Breathalyzer instrument in traffic-law enforcement, especially in Australia, Canada, and the USA is presented along with a biographical sketch of its inventor (Professor Robert F. Borkenstein of Indiana University) with focus on the man, his work and his impact. The second section discusses several issues related to forensic blood and breath-alcohol alcohol analysis as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders. This includes how the results should be interpreted in relation to impairment and an evaluation of common defense challenges. Because most countries have adopted concentration per se laws, the main thrust of the prosecution case is the suspect’s measured blood- or breath-alcohol concentration. This legal framework necessitates that the analytical methods used are "fit for purpose" and are subjected to rigorous quality assurance procedures. The third section gives a broad overview of the current state of knowledge about driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in various countries. This includes adoption of zero-tolerance laws, concentration per se statutes, and clinical evidence of driver impairment based on field sobriety tests and drug recognition expert evidence. The fourth section deals with epidemiology, enforcement, and countermeasures aimed at reducing the threat of drunken and drugged driving. All articles have appeared previously in the international journal Forensic Science Review, but all are completely updated with current data, references, and the latest research on developments since the articles were published. This book contains a convenient collection of the best articles covering recommendations for blood and breath testing methods, public policy relating to such methods, and forensic and legal implications of the enforcement of measures to counter driving under the influence.

Driver Behaviour and Training

A few women reported that leg cramp was more severe when driving because the feet are in a fixed position for using the pedals . Increasing the angle between the trunk and thighs could increase the space available for the pregnant ...

Driver Behaviour and Training

Driver Behaviour and Training

This title was first published in 2003. Research on driver behaviour over the past two decades has demonstrated that driver characteristics, goals and motivations are important determinants of driving behaviour. We are now in a position to apply this knowledge to driver training programs and evaluate their effectiveness in improving safety. The main objective for the First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training and this book, is to describe and discuss recent advances in this field. The book bridges the gap between practitioners in road safety, and theoreticians investigating driving behaviour from a number of different perspectives and related disciplines. It will encourage research in driver training to combat erroneous or deviant driving behaviour and/or reduce the effects of human error at source. This book will be of interest to road safety researchers and road safety practitioners in the private and public sector.

Alcoholism and Women

Conclusion Alcohol-related driving has shown dramatic decreases in recent yea Initial concerns about the apparent increased involvement of women alcohol-related driving appear to be partially confirmed by some age grou However, ...

Alcoholism and Women

Alcoholism and Women

'Solid, plausible, accurate and loaded with pertinent and highly referenced information regarding clinical and basic research in alcholism among women and ethnic groups...an essential text in the libraries of academicians, teachers, clinicians, researchers, and policy makers. The quality and scope of the work are groundbreaking, and it is convenient to have it all in one source.' -American Journal of Psychiatry Volume 12 highlights the remarkable evolution of alcoholism research during the last few years, focusing on gender in alcohol actions and consequences.

Driving Identities

Nearly 50 years later, in 1949, Vogue magazine published a similar article, “Women and Their Cars,” portraying several ... the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) actively recruited female driver-mechanics to service army automobiles.

Driving Identities

Driving Identities

Driving Identities examines long-standing connections between popular music and the automotive industry and how this relationship has helped to construct and reflect various socio-cultural identities. It also challenges common assumptions regarding the divergences between industry and art, and reveals how music and sound are used to suture the putative divide between human and non-human. This book is a ground-breaking inquiry into the relationship between popular music and automobiles, and into the mutual aesthetic and stylistic influences that have historically left their mark on both industries. Shaped by new historicism and cultural criticism, and by methodologies adapted from gender, LGBTQ+, and African-American studies, it makes an important contribution to understanding the complex and interconnected nature of identity and cultural formation. In its interdisciplinary approach, melding aspects of ethnomusicology, sociology, sound studies, and business studies, it pushes musicological scholarship into a new consideration and awareness of the complexity of identity construction and of influences that inform our musical culture. The volume also provides analyses of the confluences and coactions of popular music and automotive products to highlight the mutual influences on their respective aesthetic and technical evolutions. Driving Identities is aimed at both academics and enthusiasts of automotive culture, popular music, and cultural studies in general. It is accompanied by an extensive online database appendix of car-themed pop recordings and sheet music, searchable by year, artist, and title.

Lady Driver

But why driving? For Azad, the choice of driving meant moving away from the beaten track, challenging patriarchal notions of women's socalled inferior capabilities: this was crucial to their overall vision. Driving – a bullock cart, ...

Lady Driver

Lady Driver

In 2008, when the Azad Foundation, an NGO based in Delhi, began training women to become drivers of commercial and private vehicles, most people thought they were somewhat out of touch with reality. Poor, illiterate women, many of them from violent homes, some of them single mothers, others from families and communities which had never allowed women to step out of the home - how could these women take the wheel, drive around in unsafe cities, be confident and competent, earn money? At the time, there was only one known woman auto driver in Delhi. When Azad turned to radio cab companies to suggest they take in women drivers, there wasn't much interest. Today, more than 300 women drivers have received training from Azad and are on the roads of several cities. Nine years after radio companies turned Azad away, special services for women with women drivers are being introduced within these same companies. In 2015, the Delhi Transport Corporation got its first woman driver, and in 2016, the Delhi Commission for Women recruited 25 women drivers to be part of their women's helpline. Clearly, things are changing. Lady Driver maps the journeys of twelve women from poor, marginalized communities who have transformed their lives by taking up the challenge of becoming women drivers. Each story is unique; there's no Cinderella effect here. Reality does not change overnight. Instead, as the women featured here painstakingly claim a relationship with the road, it translates into claims for identity, for dignity, for a livelihood. Their stories are of beginnings, but have no endings; for our lady drivers, there are many roads still to travel.

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